Moskou / Rusland
Moscow (about 10 million inhabitants), inland port and capital of Russia. It is located on the river Moskwa. Moscow is traditionally the "Holy Mother" of the Russians and the economic, political and cultural center of Russia. Railways and numerous navigable waterways such as the Moskva Canal, the Moskva River and the Volga-Don Canal run together here, making the port areas of the city directly accessible to ships from the Baltic Sea, the White Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov. One of the legends proclaimed that Prince Yuri Dolgoruki (1090-1157) ordered a wooden city, and that this city was named after the river on the banks of which it was erected. The first written mention of Moscow dates back to 1147, which is therefore considered as the founding year of Moscow.
In the Patriotic War of 1812, when Napoléon Bonaparte (1769-1821) marched towards Moscow with his "Great Army", the city lost two-thirds of its structure in a fireside - the inhabitants ignited their houses and fled the city. But in Moscow the French army came to a standstill. Here it was forced to return because of hunger and cold, which ended with its downfall. The Russian revolution from 1905 to 1907 seized the city in December 1905, when the Moscow workers turned from the political mass strike to the armed Insurrection. The economic and supply power in World War II continued to fuel social tensions. In 1917 during the February revolution tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918) was overthrown . In the same year, Lenin (1870-1924) led the October Revolution in Saint Petersburg, which led to the civil war between 1917 and 1922 and the takeover of the communist Bolsheviks in Russia.
In August 1991, Gorbachev wanted to sign a treaty for a new Soviet Union. In order to prevent this and to save the old union, some generals, government members and the head of the KGB initiated a coup attempt against the president on 19 August of the same year. After his failure two days later, four months later on December 25, 1991 Gorbachev resigned from his office as president. The date also marks the end of the first communist state.